Alexander the Great: A young man who built the world’s largest empire at just 32 years old
From his childhood, he had such abilities that viewers felt that he would be remembered as an extraordinary figure in history.
At just 12 years old, he overpowered a wild and mischievous horse. It was a huge, wild horse named Beaucephalus who lived with the baby for most of his later life.
This child grew up to be called Alexander the Great or Alexander the Great and became one of the most famous figures in antiquities. Alexander the Great from Macedonia was born in 356 BC. Macedonia stretched from northern Greece to the Balkans.
His father was assassinated by one of his own bodyguards and a feud with a new king resulted in the elimination of all rivals and he became king at the age of 20.
After that, Alexander the Great ruled for 12 years. He traveled 12,000 miles with his army. He then defeated Daruss II, king of the Persian Empire, and spread Greek culture to Central Asia.
At its height, Alexander the Great’s empire stretched from Greece in the west to present-day Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, and Egypt in the east.
Alexander the Great is regarded as one of the most influential and skilled leaders and military commanders in history.
Before Alexander the Great, Macedonia was only a geographical unit, but the region was not a closely connected empire. However, Alexander the Great’s father Philip II transformed the region into a cohesive state.
Alexander’s mother Olympias was the third or fourth wife of his father Philip II and was important because she gave birth to the first child in the family, in the case of Alexander the Great he succeeded to the throne.
According to Rachel Myers, a lecturer in classical studies at the University of Reading in the United Kingdom, Alexander the Great received the best education of his time. When he was 13, his teachers included great philosophers like Aristotle.
Alexander the Great’s teachings on Aristotle were based on Greek culture. That is why he was taught philosophy, and like all educated Greeks, he mastered Homer, an ancient Greek poet who created masterpieces such as the Iliad and the Odyssey. Homer’s poem was very important to Alexander the Great. During the wars, he slept parts of the poem under his pillow.
The Iliad is a long epic poem that tells the story of the last year of the war between Troy and the Greeks. A strong mental connection developed between Alexander the Great and the Ecclesiastes, the heroes of this story. He was also greatly influenced by the Greek inspirational character Hercules, and these characters were on his mind during the war.
Aristotle’s disciples had a lifelong influence on Alexander the Great. Rachel Myers says: “You think Aristotle had a great opportunity to make the arrogant boy of the Greek elite an unparalleled ruler. It did not happen completely, but the way Alexander the Great ruled the Greek states. He was greatly influenced by the teachings of Aristotle.
An incident reflects this teaching. He traveled to the Greek city of Corinth to meet with the famous Greek philosopher Diogenes to pay tribute to his work. When Alexander the Great arrived, Diggins was sitting. Alexander the Great asked Diagens what he could do for her. In response, Diogenes said, “Get out of the way because the sunlight is not coming to me because of you.” It was the result of education and training.
Diana Spencer, a professor of classics at the University of Birmingham, talks about Alexander the Great’s rise to power. It caused a lot of trouble for Alexander the Great and his mother.
“Perhaps both the mother and the son realized that they were not entirely Macedonian blood. This fact hurt their sense of pride and was politically damaging. These were Alexander’s weaknesses in the battle for the throne. ۔
Diana Spencer says Philip II’s new wife, Cleopatra, could be the new queen and helper for angry princes who would run for king after Philip. For this reason, Kalopatra could be an obstacle in the way of Alexander the Great becoming king.
It was a political fact that a new Macedonian man could create problems for Alexander’s successor. Many historians have also offered a psychological perspective on this situation. According to Diana Spencer, Alexander the Great went into self-imposed exile for six months and his mother was away from court for a few months. After a while, the bitterness between the father and the son ended and Alexander the Great returned, but the cold seal in the relationship had become an obstacle in the way of Alexander’s successor.
In this situation an incident took place due to which Alexander the Great ascended the throne. It was at this point that he stopped a situation in which any Macedonian blood would challenge his succession.
Diana Spencer says King Philip II was killed by bodyguards at the wedding of Alexander, the step-sister of King Philip’s daughter. The guard was also killed.
The Macedonian people have not always been a fighting force. In Greece, the states of Athens, Sparta and Thebes have historically been sources of power. The leaders of these states called the Macedonians savages or barbarians. Alexander the Great’s father, Philip II, single-handedly made the Macedonian army an effective army whose fear spread far and wide in that ancient world.
Philip reorganized the whole of Macedonian society with a professional army. High-ranking infantry, cavalry, spearmen and archers were part of the army. After Philip’s death, Alexander inherited the same army.
Alexander the Great was always an intelligent strategist. He knew that Greece could not be ruled by fear and force. He made political use of the Persian invasion of Greece a century ago and justified his invasion of Persia with patriotism.
Alexander the Great launched a propaganda campaign claiming that the Macedonians were invading Persia from all over Greece, even though Macedonia was not involved in the war between the Persian Empire and Greece a century ago.
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In 334 BC, Alexander’s army entered the Persian Empire. Alexander the Great’s army of 50,000 faced the largest and most trained army in the world at that time.
According to one estimate, King Darius III’s subordinate army numbered 2.5 million, spread over his entire empire. The army that was considered the heart of this army was called the ‘Immortal Army’. It was an elite regiment of 10,000 soldiers, numbering no less than 10,000. During the war, when one soldier of the contingent was killed, another would take his place and the total number would remain the same.
But in spite of this great military power, the Persian Empire was defeated by the most effective and intelligent strategy of Alexander the Great.
According to historians, one of the reasons for the defeat of the Persian Empire was that it had already fallen and had ceased to exist after successive defeats in Greece in the fifth century BC.
In 324 BC, Alexander the Great arrived in Susa, Persia. He wanted to unite the people of Persia and Macedonia and create a generation that would be loyal only to him. Alexander ordered many of his generals and officials to marry the princesses of Persia. A mass wedding ceremony was held on the occasion. Alexander the Great chose two more wives for himself. Alexander the Great came to power, achieved great victories and then fell, all in a short time.
Diana Spencer explains that according to many Roman historians, Alexander the Great sometimes became intoxicated and once killed a close friend while intoxicated at dinner. Many incidents of drunken rage and eccentric behavior have been reported by Roman historians, the veracity of which is also in question.
His friend who was killed by Alexander was Cletis, who was very close to Alexander and his family. He often truthfully advised Alexander and was his arm in every battle. Alexander was very drunk that day and when Cletis said that your personality is changing, you need to control yourself, you are becoming like the people of Persia and it seems that you are among us. If not, then Cletis had chosen the wrong opportunity to say it all. At that moment, Alexander got up from his seat and stabbed Cletius in the chest.
Due to Alexander the Great’s conquests and the charm of his personality, the ancient Greeks considered him not a common man but a deity, while Alexander the Great himself was convinced that he was a deity. Started advancing towards the east and reached India. Alexander the Great then set out to return to Macedonia, but he was not destined to return home.
In 323 BC, at the age of 32, on his return journey to the region of Babylon and Nineveh (present-day Iraq), a mysterious disease caused his sudden death.
Some historians believe that the cause of death was an infection in his wounds and some believe that he died of malaria.
Why did Alexander the Great feel the need to go to India after conquering the Persian Empire? Paul Cartilage, a professor of Greek culture, says it had defensive and romantic reasons. Alexander wanted to show that the borders of his kingdom had reached as far as his father Philip II could not. Borders are necessary for empires. And empires are constantly worried about what goes beyond their borders.
An example of this is the Roman Empire when Caesar (Caesar) invaded Britain. So Alexander the Great was expanding his borders and establishing permanent borders. It has become a defensive interpretation, while the romantic interpretation is that Alexander the Great had in his mind the idea that the divinatory characters Hercules and Dionysus had gone there, so I will go too.
Alexander the Great’s successive victories gave him the confidence to go as far as he could. Rachel Myers, a lecturer in classics at the University of Reading, says the important question is, at this stage in her life, what Alexander the Great did with the ground realities.