in the history of europe the middle ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century it began with the fall of the western roman empire and merged into the renaissance and the age of discovery the middle ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of western history classical antiquity the medieval and modern period the medieval one is itself subdivided into the early high and late phases since the fall of rome there has been no empire based in europe which extends outside the continent this situation changes abruptly in the 16th century when spain
Why Did The Portuguese Empire Collapse? | How Did The Portuguese Empire Collapse? | What Are The Reasons For Portuguese Empire Collapse?
and portugal become the pioneers in a new era of colonization before was the middle ages in that period the liberian peninsula was a principal area in europe which was marked by wars famine and invasion muslim conquest of hispania was the initial expansion of the umayyad caliphate over hispania largely extending from 7-11-788 the conquest resulted in the destruction of the visigothic kingdom the reconquista described the period in the history of liberian peninsula of about 780 years between the umayyad conquest of hispania in 711 and the fall of the nazareth kingdom of granada to the expanding christian kingdoms in 1491.
one of these christian kingdoms which reconquered the peninsula was portugal [Music] this period is so important because it is in fact the transition between the post-roman iberia and the exploration era the simple idea of fighting the muslims on their own soil was linked with more complicated motives the desire to explore in a scientific sense the hope of finding a way to the rich spice trade of the indies and the impulse to spread the christian faith so even before columbus’s voyages portugal being at the end of europe on the atlantic coast started some expeditions reaching some islands in the ocean
and the west african coast the oriental land and sea routes terminated along the mediterranean sea for them the word spices then had a loose application and extended to many oriental luxuries later vasco de gama adventured south and east for portugal reached india in 1498 establishing a new route to the asian goods portugal gained possessions in india the east indies and brazil besides the footholds in some parts of the world portugal was a country that discovered other places and established trade routes to china and japan and their empire will start to exist as scarcely empire it was a commercial operation
based on possession of fortifications and posts strategically situated for trade portugal didn’t focus on attacking and gaining tons of land from oriental kingdoms due to the probable lack of necessary manpower and the huge distance to do so portuguese also relied on alliances with native states and didn’t dominate the indian ocean due to its vastness but managed to establish strongholds to assure a trade network the first parts of the portuguese empire to be lost were the eastern colonies in indonesia sri lanka nagasaki and taiwan this loss began in 1580 when the spanish king became the first of three
consecutive spanish kings of portugal due to family ties between the two crowns in 1580 philip ii of spain seized the portuguese throne which had fallen vacant into which he had some blood claim portugal remained theoretically independent bound only by a personal union to its neighbor but seceding spanish monarch steadily encroached on its liberties until the small kingdom became in effect a conquered province spain’s european enemies meanwhile descended on the portuguese empire and ended its eastern supremacy before the restoration of portugal’s independence in 1640.
spain was a power at the time but however this union meant that spain dragged portugal into its conflicts with other european power countries these ones weakened the spanish and portuguese and marked their slow decline the spanish wars became portuguese wars for instance several portuguese ships were integrated in the spanish armada that attacked england in 1588. one of those inherited wars was with the dutch fighting for their freedom against spanish rule they began attacking portuguese colonies throughout the world in 1602 the dutch conquered most of the eastern portuguese
the eastern portuguese empire ended except some strongholds like timur in indonesia macau and china and goa in india also in the arab peninsula the portuguese will lose small possessions the loss of colonies was one of the reasons that contributed to the end of the personal union with spain the crown established the overseas council in 1643 in the next hundred years the english started to become the dominant power in india the portuguese were defeated by some indian kingdoms and after all this they were only able to maintain goa and other minor bases in india the gold rush
and the plantation industry in brazil which was the main portuguese colony considerably increased the gains of the crown in the 18th century but in the same century in 1755 lisbon the capital was hit by a catastrophic huge earthquake followed by a tsunami which created huge destruction probably this event influenced in a pretty bad way for portuguese colonial and internal ambitions after the american independence it was fear that some other colonies in the new world might do the same but brazil wasn’t under a serious threat at the time the situation will change after 1808 when napoleon
changed the history of europe and the world by invading some countries creating instability new coalitions and his actions were followed by other actions in 1808 napoleon bonaparte invaded portugal and the royal court was moved to brazil by 1815 brazil was elevated to the status of kingdom the portuguese state officially becoming the united kingdom of portugal brazil in the agravez with the capital transferred to lisbon from rio de janeiro in brazil the royal family came back to the portuguese mainland in 1821 but after all these changes with brazil having the equal status with portugal a growing
desire for independence started to exist when the king tried to turn brazil back into a colony the crown prince declared the independence of brazil and became the first brazilian emperor the western portuguese empire ended john was still the king of this united kingdom and his son the prince pedro proclaimed the independence of brazil one year later in 1822. portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other european powers there portugal pushed into the heartland of angola and mozambique
in 1890 the british crown made an ultimatum to the portuguese king all portuguese efforts to conquer african territory between angela and mozambique to unite both portuguese colonies had come to a halt the english wanted to connect by rail south africa and egypt through exclusive english colonies this 1890 british ultimatum later caused the fall of the portuguese monarchy and the chances of an existing colonial empire in the 20th century after the two conflicts portugal wasn’t called an empire and it was more like a nation with overseas territories they still held lands in africa
and asia decolonization movements began to gain momentum in the empires of the european powers the ensuing cold war also created instabilities among portuguese overseas populations following the granting of independence to india by britain in 1947 and the decision by france to allow its enclaves in india in 1961 shortly after an uprising against the portuguese in angola nehru ordered the indian army into gua damon and du which were quickly captured
and formerly annexed the following year after 1961 pan-african pressures grew and portugal found itself mired in a series of colonial wars the portuguese colonial war was fought between portugal and the emerging nationalist movements in portugal’s african colonies backed by other countries between 1961 and 1974. the portuguese regime was overthrown by 1974
and the change in government brought the conflict to an end after this the african colonies gained full independence east timur also declared independence in 1975. signed a declaration with china to establish the process and conditions for the transfer of macau the transfer of this last colony in 1999 marked the end of portuguese colonialism and please tell us in the comments what you would like to see next we are open to any ideas and we’d love to see your proposals for the next Article you
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