History In English

Why Did Yugoslavia Collapse?

Why Did Yugoslavia Collapse?

yugoslavia for many a long forgotten failed nation for others an all too painful and recent memory a once united federation made up of six neighboring republics yugoslavia’s existence was never a simple one with constant ethnic and religious division it seemed that it was only a matter of time before a breakup would be imminent but was that the only cause of yugoslavia’s collapse and how did the ethnic disputes actually lead to the destruction of an entire federation the presence of division

Why Did Yugoslavia Collapse? | How Did Yugoslavia Collapse? | What Are The Reasons For Yugoslavia Collapse?

and discord between the different ethnic groups within the borders of yugoslavia had existed for a long while this was not by any means a new development within the years before the collapse of the federation but the matter did worsen following world war ii previously yugoslavia had actually been the kingdom of yugoslavia this kingdom was then transformed temporarily into the democratic federal yugoslavia and shortly after the socialist federal republic of yugoslavia before

the expansion of republics and particular ethnic groups within yugoslavia there was already significant disunity between the serbs and other ethnic categories which served as a shaky foundation from the start while nationalism was a raging problem within the federation from day one there was a short stint of partial harmony thanks to president joseph rose tito tito was a wonderful promoter of unity and brotherhood and his efforts to curb the dangerous nationalism within his federation was impressively effective for some time moreover during tito’s term as president yugoslavia became a regionally powerful nation industrially

and had a well economy it appeared that the troubles of yugoslavia were a thing of the past until yosep tito died leading up to the president’s death the growing economy had begun to show favor to only some regions within the federation and though tito supported brotherhood it appeared he may have gone too far to support the individual republic’s right to national self-determination the end of tito’s administration also came around the time of economic trouble for the federation

as a whole yugoslavia was now heavily in debt after the 1973 oil crisis and trade barrier complications with the west which quickly reversed the success that the federation’s economy had originally achieved this also exacerbated the ethnic divisions most notably between the south of the federation which was viewed as vastly unproductive and undeveloped and the entities of slovenia and croatia with these new challenges and the death of the president who had worked hard to create unity within

the federation the ethnic divide was now the center point of yugoslavia one of the main causes of this was the fact that each republic failed to split along ethnic lines meaning that there were different groups within each border and oftentimes each ethnic group was quite nationalistic furthermore there was also the creation of two autonomous provinces within serbia itself known as kosovo and voy vedina that complicated matters even more when protests broke out in the late 1980s as ethnic serbs

throughout serbia and the autonomous provinces tried to fight back against particularly the albanian majority of kosovo the thought was that serbia’s communist leader slobodan milosevic would react by creating some type of unity instead he justified the serb’s outrage directed at the albanians and began to push for reduced autonomy of both kosovo and voivodina eventually after a series of protests known as the rallies of truth supporters of milosevic managed to oust the governments in both

autonomous provinces which then cleared the way for the allies of milosevic to be put into their places the leadership of montenegro was also deposed in 1989 after a second coup d’etat and there too was placed a supporter of the former ruler this was only the beginning of the conflict between the serbs and the albanians croatia and slovenia were now joining the kosovo dispute coming to the support of the albanian majority which greatly angered the serbs protests continued to be held and both

police and military forces were called in to deal with what the serbs viewed as an attack against serbia and yugoslavia as a whole mostly in reaction to kosovo’s calls to become the seventh republic within the federation one bosnian politician and current president of yugoslavia reif dysdarovich tried to calm the tensions in 1989 with a heartfelt speech to the serbian protesters our fathers died to create yugoslavia we will not go down the road to national conflict we will take the path of brotherhood and unity

he said though the protesters reacted to his speech positively it failed to end the protests likely given the facts that the serbs saw the actions of the kosovo albanians as the root of this national conflict the lines were now clear it was the serbs against the albanians croats slovenes and even the leaders of bosnia and herzegovina the conflict was nowhere near over as the bickering republics aimed to resolve the disputes politically the divide only seemed to widen and yugoslavia was forced into a multi-party system

across all six republics this was a major blow to the communists in the federation as most of them were beaten by the end of the 1990 elections the fall of communism coincided with the same decline throughout the soviet union and its other allies and pushed the nationalistic identity within the yugoslav federation even further this sparked even more ethnic tension because there were minorities within each republic such as the 12.2 percent of serbs in croatia that were suddenly being threatened by their homes

oppositions to their ethnic identity in this specific instance the new croatian leader franjo tudman claimed that he would protect the croatian people from milosevic and the serbian threat which created backlash from the ethnic serbs in croatia these serbs established a new separatist organization in which they demanded to be reunified with serbia in the case of croatian secession from the federation this soon triggered what was nicknamed the log revolution where serbs in croatia attempted to take control of the

serbian majority town of kin and appealed to the federal military for support when croatian helicopters filled with the armed special forces were sent in to quell the revolt the yugoslav air force decided to intervene and ordered the croatian helicopters to turn back and stay away from kin or else they would be shot down the croatians followed the command and returned to their base in zagreb as tensions continued to boil over a period known as the yugoslav wars broke out in 1991 throughout the federation

yugoslavia was now doomed and the efforts that had been made by dominant serbia and any other supporters of the union were now appearing to be completely in vain in june of that same year croatia officially declared their independence despite disapproval from other republics this independence was delayed by three months through the brie juni agreement but was nonetheless imminent macedonia declared independence in september of the same year on january 9 1992 the republic of serbian people of bosnia

and herzegovina was founded and bosnia and herzegovina as a whole declared independence on march the 3rd the serbian republic within was to follow after which points they laid siege to the bosnian capital of sarajevo sparking a new stretch of the yugoslav wars all that was now left of the once six republic strong federation was serbia and montenegro yugoslavia was rapidly dissolving and there was no hope for recovery in addition to the ethnic disputes and now full-blown wars the effects of communism

collapsing and the struggling yugoslav economy had also contributed to the decay of the federation still no factor seemed quite as obvious nor relevant as the ethnic divide this is what led to the utter chaos within the dying union and what would eventually cause the official dissolution of yugoslavia now only made up of serbia and montenegro on february 4th 2003 the federation transformed into the state union of serbia and montenegro which was no more successful or stable than its predecessor and itself broke

up on june 3rd 2006. as far as the conflict with kosovo its autonomy and status as an independent nation continues to be debated throughout the world many countries such as the united states do recognize kosovo as its own nation but serbia and its close allies beg to differ a sign that the ethnic conflict sadly did not disappear with the dissolution of yugoslavia itself each individual nation had its own strong national identity and the inability to properly place border lines to separate each ethnic groups

proved to be an untameable issue for all of yugoslavia in the former yugoslavia croatian and serbian were considered one language also called serbo-croatian and serbo-croat today largely because of the connection between language and national identity there has been an effort to have serbian and croatian recognized as separate languages there are certain differences between the two languages in vocabulary grammar and pronunciation moreover they have separate writing systems serbian

uses both the cyrillic and the roman alphabets while croatian uses the roman alphabet exclusively the two languages remain mutually intelligible with only minor dialectal variation for that reason some linguists refer to the two languages together with bosnian under the single name of bosnian croatian serbian while the economic and political challenges that the federation faced were clear exacerbating forces pushing towards a final collapse it was truly the ethnic division and the lack of brotherhood that destroyed yugoslavia from the inside out you

Read More : Why did the Iberian Union Fail?


Watch and Download Turkish Historic Series in English with Urdu Subtitles | History | Kids Turkish Series | Top20Series Always Provided Premium Content
Back to top button